One response to the paradox (the starving ass is caught between two equally attractive haybales, and starves from indecision, needing a reason to prefer one to the other in order to eat) is to allow for the possibility, and rationality, of arbitrary actions. One can, for example, decide to choose between the two equally attractive options by flipping a coin. After the flip, the haybales remain equally attractive, but there is an explanation why the ass chooses one bale over the other. This response has implications for the theory of rational action, but I won’t go into that here. What I wonder is if anyone knows of literature proposing other responses to the paradox, or reasons for being dissatisfied with this one?